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61. Structure of solids and liquids; crystallography (for surface, interface, and thin film structure, see section 68)
61.10.-i X-ray diffraction and scattering (for x-ray diffractometers, see 07.85.Jy; for x-ray studies of crystal defects, see 61.72.Dd, Ff)
61.10.Dp Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.10.Eq X-ray scattering (including small-angle scattering)
61.10.Ht X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS, NEXAFS, XANES, etc.
61.10.Kw X-ray reflectometry (surfaces, interfaces, films)
61.10.Nz X-ray diffraction
61.12.-q Neutron diffraction and scattering
61.12.Bt Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.12.Ex Neutron scattering (including small-angle scattering)
61.12.Ha Neutron reflectometry
61.12.Ld Neutron diffraction
61.14.-x Electron diffraction and scattering (for electron diffractometers, see 07.78.+s)
61.14.Dc Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.14.Hg Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)
61.14.Lj Convergent-beam electron diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, nanodiffraction
61.14.Nm Electron holography
61.14.Qp X-ray photoelectron diffraction
... ... ...Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see 68.37.-d
61.18.-j Other methods of structure determination
61.18.Bn Atom, molecule, and ion scattering
61.18.Fs Magnetic resonance techniques; Mössbauer spectroscopy
61.20.-p Structure of liquids
61.20.Gy Theory and models of liquid structure
61.20.Ja Computer simulation of liquid structure
61.20.Lc Time-dependent properties; relaxation (for glass transitions, see 64.70.Pf)
61.20.Ne Structure of simple liquids
61.20.Qg Structure of associated liquids: electrolytes, molten salts, etc.
61.25.-f Studies of specific liquid structures
61.25.Bi Liquid noble gases
61.25.Em Molecular liquids
61.25.Hq Macromolecular and polymer solutions; polymer melts; swelling
61.25.Mv Liquid metals and alloys
61.30.-v Liquid crystals (for phase transitions in liquid crystals, see 64.70.Md; for liquid crystals as dielectric materials, see 77.84.Nh; for liquid crystals as optical materials, see 42.70.Df; for liquid crystal devices, see 42.79.Kt)
61.30.Cz Molecular and microscopic models and theories of liquid crystal structure
61.30.Dk Continuum models and theories of liquid crystal structure
61.30.Eb Experimental determinations of smectic, nematic, cholesteric, and other structures
61.30.Gd Orientational order of liquid crystals; electric and magnetic field effects on order
61.30.Hn Surface phenomena: alignment, anchoring, anchoring transitions, surface-induced layering, surface-induced ordering, wetting, prewetting transitions, and wetting transitions (see also section 68 Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and low-dimensional systems)
61.30.Jf Defects in liquid crystals
61.30.Mp Blue phases and other defect-phases
61.30.Pq Microconfined liquid crystals: droplets, cylinders, randomly confined liquid crystals, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, and porous systems
61.30.St Lyotropic phases
61.30.Vx Polymer liquid crystals
61.41.+e Polymers, elastomers, and plastics (see also 81.05.Lg in materials science; for rheology of polymers, see section 83; for polymer reactions and polymerization, see 82.35.-x in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
61.43.-j Disordered solids (see also 81.05.Gc, 81.05.Kf, and 81.05.Rm in materials science; for photoluminescence of disordered solids, see 78.55.Mb and 78.55.Qr)
61.43.Bn Structural modeling: serial-addition models, computer simulation
61.43.Dq Amorphous semiconductors, metals, and alloys
61.43.Er Other amorphous solids
61.43.Fs Glasses
61.43.Gt Powders, porous materials
61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates (including diffusion-limited aggregates)
61.44.-n Semi-periodic solids
61.44.Br Quasicrystals
61.44.Fw Incommensurate crystals
61.46.+w Nanoscale materials: clusters, nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanocrystals (see also 36.40.-c Atomic and molecular clusters; for fabrication and characterization of nanoscale materials, see 81.07.-b in materials science)
61.48.+c Fullerenes and fullerene-related materials (see also 81.05.Tp Fullerenes and related materials in materials science)
61.50.-f Crystalline state
61.50.Ah Theory of crystal structure, crystal symmetry; calculations and modeling
... ... ...Crystal growth, see 81.10.-h
61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects (see also 81.30.Hd in materials science)
61.50.Lt Crystal binding; cohesive energy
61.50.Nw Crystal stoichiometry
61.66.-f Structure of specific crystalline solids (for surface structure, see 68.35.Bs)
61.66.Bi Elemental solids
61.66.Dk Alloys
61.66.Fn Inorganic compounds
61.66.Hq Organic compounds
... ... ...Quantum crystals, see 67.80.Cx
61.68.+n Crystallographic databases
61.72.-y Defects and impurities in crystals; microstructure (for radiation induced defects, see 61.80.-x; for defects in surfaces, interfaces and thin films, see 68.35.Dv and 68.55.Ln; see also 85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology)
61.72.Bb Theories and models of crystal defects
61.72.Cc Kinetics of defect formation and annealing
61.72.Dd Experimental determination of defects by diffraction and scattering
61.72.Ff Direct observation of dislocations and other defects (etch pits, decoration, electron microscopy, x-ray topography, etc.)
61.72.Hh Indirect evidence of dislocations and other defects (resistivity, slip, creep, strains, internal friction, EPR, NMR, etc.)
61.72.Ji Point defects (vacancies, interstitials, color centers, etc.) and defect clusters
61.72.Lk Linear defects: dislocations, disclinations
61.72.Mm Grain and twin boundaries
61.72.Nn Stacking faults and other planar or extended defects
61.72.Qq Microscopic defects (voids, inclusions, etc.)
61.72.Ss Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients (for impurities in thin films, see 68.55.Ln; see also 66.30.Jt Diffusion of impurities)
61.72.Tt Doping and impurity implantation in germanium and silicon
61.72.Vv Doping and impurity implantation in III-V and II-VI semiconductors
61.72.Ww Doping and impurity implantation in other materials
61.72.Yx Interaction between different crystal defects; gettering effect
61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage (for photochemical reactions, see 82.50.-m)
... ... ...Radiation treatments, see 81.40.Wx
61.80.Az Theory and models of radiation effects
61.80.Ba Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation effects (including laser radiation)
61.80.Cb X-ray effects
61.80.Ed gamma-ray effects
61.80.Fe Electron and positron radiation effects
61.80.Hg Neutron radiation effects
61.80.Jh Ion radiation effects (for ion implantation, see 61.72.Tt, Vv, Ww)
61.80.Lj Atom and molecule irradiation effects
... ... ...Channeling, blocking, and energy loss of particles, see 61.85.+p
61.82.-d Radiation effects on specific materials
61.82.Bg Metals and alloys
61.82.Fk Semiconductors
61.82.Ms Insulators
61.82.Pv Polymers, organic compounds
61.82.Rx Nanocrystalline materials
61.85.+p Channeling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
61.90.+d Other topics in structure of solids and liquids; crystallography (restricted to new topics in section 61)
62. Mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter (for nonlinear acoustics of solids, see 43.25.Dc-in acoustics appendix; for mechanical and acoustical properties of interfaces and thin films, see 68.35.Gy, 68.35.Iv, and 68.60.Bs; for mechanical properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Jj, Lm, Np-in material science; for mechanical and acoustical properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Ld; for mechanical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.-x)
62.10.+s Mechanical properties of liquids (for viscosity of liquids, see 66.20.-x)
62.20.-x Mechanical properties of solids
62.20.Dc Elasticity, elastic constants
62.20.Fe Deformation and plasticity (including yield, ductility, and superplasticity) (see also 83.50.-v Deformation and flow in rheology)
62.20.Hg Creep
62.20.Mk Fatigue, brittleness, fracture, and cracks
62.20.Qp Tribology and hardness (see also 46.55.+d Tribology and mechanical contacts in continuum mechanics of solids)
62.25.+g Mechanical properties of nanoscale materials
62.30.+d Mechanical and elastic waves; vibrations (see also 43.40.+s Structural acoustics and vibration; 46.40.-f Vibrations and mechanical waves in continuum mechanics of solids)
62.40.+i Anelasticity, internal friction, stress relaxation, and mechanical resonances (see also 81.40.Jj Elasticity and anelasticity)
... ... ...Thermomechanical effects, see 65.40.De
... ... ...Magnetomechanical effects, see 75.80.+q
... ... ...Piezoelectric effects, see 77.65.-j
... ... ...Elastooptical effects, see 78.20.Hp
62.50.+p High-pressure and shock wave effects in solids and liquids (for high pressure apparatus and techniques, see 07.35.+k; for shock wave initiated high-pressure chemistry, see 82.40.Fp)
62.60.+v Acoustical properties of liquids (see also 43.35.+d in acoustics)
... ... ...Lattice dynamics, phonons, see section 63
... ... ...Second sound in quantum fluids, see 67.40.Pm
62.65.+k Acoustical properties of solids
... ... ...Magnetoacoustic effects, see 72.55.+s and 73.50.Rb
... ... ...Acoustoelectric effects, see 72.50.+b, 73.50.Rb, and 77.65.Dq
... ... ...Acoustooptical effects, see 78.20.Hp
62.80.+f Ultrasonic relaxation (see also 43.35.Fj Ultrasonic relaxation processes in liquids and solids-in acoustics appendix; for ultrasonic attenuation in superconductors, see 74.25.Ld)
62.90.+k Other topics in mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 62)
63. Lattice dynamics (see also 78.30.-j Infrared and Raman spectra; for surface and interface vibrations, see 68.35.Ja; for adsorbate vibrations, see 68.43.Pq)
63.10.+a General theory
63.20.-e Phonons in crystal lattices (for phonons in superconductors, see 74.25.Kc; see also 43.35.Gk Phonons in crystal lattice, quantum acoustics-in acoustics appendix)
63.20.Dj Phonon states and bands, normal modes, and phonon dispersion
63.20.Kr Phonon-electron and phonon-phonon interactions
63.20.Ls Phonon interactions with other quasiparticles
63.20.Mt Phonon-defect interactions
63.20.Pw Localized modes
63.20.Ry Anharmonic lattice modes
63.22.+m Phonons or vibrational states in low-dimensional structures and nanoscale materials
63.50.+x Vibrational states in disordered systems
63.70.+h Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations and displacive phase transitions
63.90.+t Other topics in lattice dynamics (restricted to new topics in section 63)
64. Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions (see also 82.60.-s Chemical thermodynamics)
64.10.+h General theory of equations of state and phase equilibria (see also 05.70.Ce Thermodynamic functions and equations of state in thermodynamics)
64.30.+t Equations of state of specific substances
64.60.-i General studies of phase transitions (see also 63.70.+h Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations and displacive phase transitions; for critical phenomena in solid surfaces and interfaces, and in magnetism, see 68.35.Rh, and 75.40.-s, respectively)
64.60.Ak Renormalization-group, fractal, and percolation studies of phase transitions (see also 61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates)
64.60.Cn Order-disorder transformations; statistical mechanics of model systems
64.60.Fr Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents
64.60.Ht Dynamic critical phenomena
64.60.Kw Multicritical points
64.60.My Metastable phases
64.60.Qb Nucleation (see also 82.60.Nh Thermodynamics of nucleation in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
64.70.-p Specific phase transitions
64.70.Dv Solid-liquid transitions
64.70.Fx Liquid-vapor transitions
64.70.Hz Solid-vapor transitions
64.70.Ja Liquid-liquid transitions
64.70.Kb Solid-solid transitions (see also 61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects; 75.30.Kz and 77.80.Bh for magnetic and ferroelectric transitions, respectively; for material science aspects, see 81.30.-t)
64.70.Md Transitions in liquid crystals
64.70.Nd Structural transitions in nanoscale materials
64.70.Pf Glass transitions
64.70.Rh Commensurate-incommensurate transitions
64.75.+g Solubility, segregation, and mixing; phase separation (see also 82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions)
64.90.+b Other topics in equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions (restricted to new topics in section 64)
65. Thermal properties of condensed matter (see also 05.70.-a Thermodynamics and section 44 Heat transfer; for thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids and solids, see section 67; for thermal properties of thin films, see 68.60.Dv; for nonelectronic thermal conduction, see 66.60.+a and 66.70.+f; for thermal properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Ki; for thermodynamic properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Bt)
65.20.+w Thermal properties of liquids: heat capacity, thermal expansion, etc.
65.40.-b Thermal properties of crystalline solids (for specific heat of superconductors, see 74.25.Bt; for specific heat of magnetic systems, see 75.40.Cx)
65.40.Ba Heat capacity
65.40.De Thermal expansion; thermomechanical effects
65.40.Gr Entropy and other thermodynamical quantities
65.60.+a Thermal properties of amorphous solids and glasses: heat capacity, thermal expansion, etc.
65.80.+n Thermal properties of small particles, nanocrystals, nanotubes (see also 82.60.Qr Thermodynamics of nanoparticles in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
65.90.+i Other topics in thermal properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 65)
66. Transport properties of condensed matter (nonelectronic)
66.10.-x Diffusion and ionic conduction in liquids
66.10.Cb Diffusion and thermal diffusion (for osmosis in biological systems, see 82.39.Wj)
66.10.Ed Ionic conduction
66.20.+d Viscosity of liquids; diffusive momentum transport
66.30.-h Diffusion in solids (for surface and interface diffusion, see 68.35.Fx)
66.30.Dn Theory of diffusion and ionic conduction in solids
66.30.Fq Self-diffusion in metals, semimetals, and alloys
66.30.Hs Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in nonmetals
66.30.Jt Diffusion of impurities
66.30.Lw Diffusion of other defects
66.30.Ny Chemical interdiffusion; diffusion barriers
66.30.Pa Diffusion in nanoscale solids
66.30.Qa Electromigration
66.30.Xj Thermal diffusivity
66.35.+a Quantum tunneling of defects
66.60.+a Thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids (for thermal conduction in liquid metals, see 72.15.Cz)
66.70.+f Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation in solids; thermal waves (for thermal conduction in metals and alloys, see 72.15.Cz and 72.15.Eb)
66.90.+r Other topics in nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 66)
67. Quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium (see also 05.30.-d Quantum statistical mechanics)
67.20.+k Quantum effects on the structure and dynamics of nondegenerate fluids (e.g., normal phase liquid 4He)
67.40.-w Boson degeneracy and superfluidity of 4He
67.40.Bz Phenomenology and two-fluid models
67.40.Db Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations
67.40.Fd Dynamics of relaxation phenomena
67.40.Hf Hydrodynamics in specific geometries, flow in narrow channels
67.40.Jg Ions in liquid 4He
67.40.Kh Thermodynamic properties
67.40.Mj First sound
67.40.Pm Transport processes, second and other sounds, and thermal counterflow; Kapitza resistance
67.40.Rp Films and weak link transport
67.40.Vs Vortices and turbulence
67.40.Yv Impurities and other defects
67.55.-s Normal phase of liquid 3He
67.55.Cx Thermodynamic properties
67.55.Fa Hydrodynamics
67.55.Hc Transport properties
67.55.Ig Ions in normal liquid 3He
67.55.Jd Collective modes
67.55.Lf Impurities
67.57.-z Superfluid phase of liquid 3He
67.57.Bc Thermodynamic properties
67.57.De Superflow and hydrodynamics
67.57.Fg Textures and vortices
67.57.Gh Ions in superfluid 3He
67.57.Hi Transport properties
67.57.Jj Collective modes
67.57.Lm Spin dynamics
67.57.Np Behavior near interfaces
67.57.Pq Impurities
67.60.-g Mixed systems; liquid 3He, 4He mixtures
67.60.Dm HeI-3He
67.60.Fp HeII-3He
67.60.Hr Dilute superfluid 3He in He II
67.60.Js Ions in liquid 3He-4He mixtures
67.65.+z Spin-polarized hydrogen and helium
67.70.+n Films (including physical adsorption)
67.80.-s Solid helium and related quantum crystals
67.80.Cx Structure, lattice dynamics, and sound propagation
67.80.Gb Thermal properties
67.80.Jd Magnetic properties and nuclear magnetic resonance
67.80.Mg Defects, impurities, and diffusion
67.90.+z Other topics in quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium (restricted to new topics in section 67)
68. Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and low-dimensional systems (structure and nonelectronic properties) (for surface and interface chemistry, see 82.65.+r, for surface magnetism, see 75.70.Rf)
68.03.-g Gas-liquid and vacuum-liquid interfaces
68.03.Cd Surface tension and related phenomena
68.03.Fg Evaporation and condensation
68.03.Hj Structure, measurements and simulations
68.03.Kn Dynamics (capillary waves)
68.05.-n Liquid-liquid interfaces
68.05.Cf Structure, measurements and simulations
68.05.Gh Interfacial properties of microemulsions
68.08.-p Liquid-solid interfaces
68.08.Bc Wetting
68.08.De Structure, measurements and simulations
... ... ...Crystal growth, biomineralization, see 81.10.Dn, Fq
68.15.+e Liquid thin films
68.18.-g Langmuir-Blodgett films on liquids (for L-B films on solids, see 68.47.Pe)
68.18.Fg Structure: measurements and simulations
68.18.Jk Phase transitions
68.35.-p Solid surfaces and solid-solid interfaces: Structure and energetics
68.35.Af Atomic scale friction
68.35.Bs Structure of clean surfaces (reconstruction)
68.35.Ct Interface structure and roughness
68.35.Dv Composition, segregation; defects and impurities
68.35.Fx Diffusion; interface formation (see also 66.30.-h Diffusion in solids, for diffusion of adsorbates, see 68.43.Jk)
68.35.Gy Mechanical properties; surface strains
68.35.Iv Acoustical properties
68.35.Ja Surface and interface dynamics and vibrations
... ... ...Solid-solid interfaces: transport and optical properties, see 73.40.-c and 78.20.-e respectively
68.35.Md Surface thermodynamics, surface energies (see also 05.70.Np Interface and surface thermodynamics in statistical physics, thermodynamics and nonlinear dynamical systems)
68.35.Np Adhesion (for polymer adhesion, see 82.35.Gh)
68.35.Rh Phase transitions and critical phenomena
68.37.-d Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
68.37.Ef Scanning tunneling microscopy (including chemistry induced with STM)
68.37.Hk Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (including EBIC)
68.37.Lp Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including STEM, HRTEM, etc.)
68.37.Nq Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM)
68.37.Ps Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
68.37.Rt Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)
68.37.Tj Acoustic force microscopy
68.37.Uv Near-field scanning microscopy and spectroscopy
68.37.Vj Field emission and field-ion microscopy
68.37.Xy Scanning Auger microscopy, photoelectron microscopy
68.37.Yz X-ray microscopy
68.43.-h Chemisorption/physisorption: adsorbates on surfaces
68.43.Bc Ab initio calculations of adsorbate structure and reactions (for electronic structure of adsorbates, see 73.20.Hb; for adsorbate reactions, see also 82.65.+r Surface and interface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces)
68.43.De Statistical mechanics of adsorbates
68.43.Fg Adsorbate structure (binding sites, geometry)
68.43.Hn Structure of assemblies of adsorbates (two- and three-dimensional clustering)
68.43.Jk Diffusion of adsorbates, kinetics of coarsening and aggregation
68.43.Mn Adsorption/desorption kinetics
68.43.Pq Adsorbate vibrations
68.43.Rs Electron stimulated desorption
68.43.Tj Photon stimulated desorption
68.43.Vx Thermal desorption
68.47.-b Solid-gas/vacuum interfaces: types of surfaces
68.47.De Metallic surfaces
68.47.Fg Semiconductor surfaces
68.47.Gh Oxide surfaces
68.47.Jn Clusters on oxide surfaces
68.47.Mn Polymer surfaces
68.47.Pe Langmuir-Blodgett films on solids; polymers on surfaces; biological molecules on surfaces
68.49.-h Surface characterization by particle-surface scattering (see also 34.50.Dy Interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces; photon and electron emission; neutralization of ions in atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions)
68.49.Bc Atom scattering from surfaces (diffraction and energy transfer)
68.49.Df Molecule scattering from surfaces (energy transfer, resonances, trapping)
68.49.Fg Cluster scattering from surfaces
68.49.Jk Electron scattering from surfaces
68.49.Sf Ion scattering from surfaces (charge transfer, sputtering, SIMS)
68.49.Uv X-ray standing waves
... ... ...Surface and interface electron states, see 73.20.-r
... ... ...Electronic structure of adsorbates, see 73.20.Hb
... ... ...Vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman, ATR), see 78.30.-j
... ... ...Electron spectroscopy (EELS, Auger, metastable quenching spectroscopy see 79.20.-m
... ... ...Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS), see 79.60.-i
... ... ...Nonlinear spectroscopy (second harmonic, sum frequency generation, etc.), see 42.65.Ky
... ... ...Electron diffraction (LEED, RHEED), see 61.14.-x
... ... ...Surface enhanced spectroscopy, plasmons, see 73.20.Mf
... ... ...Near-field scanning microscopy and spectroscopy, see 68.37.Uv
68.55.-a Thin film structure and morphology (for methods of thin film deposition, film growth and epitaxy, see 81.15.-z)
68.55.Ac Nucleation and growth: microscopic aspects
68.55.Jk Structure and morphology; thickness; crystalline orientation and texture
68.55.Ln Defects and impurities: doping, implantation, distribution, concentration, etc. (for diffusion of impurities, see 66.30.Jt)
68.55.Nq Composition and phase identification
68.60.-p Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic
68.60.Bs Mechanical and acoustical properties
68.60.Dv Thermal stability; thermal effects
68.60.Wm Other nonelectronic physical properties
68.65.-k Low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale systems: structure and nonelectronic properties (for structure of nanoscale materials, see 61.46.+w; for magnetic properties of interfaces, see 75.70.Cn; for superconducting properties, see 74.78.-w; for optical properties, see 78.67.-n; for transport properties, see 73.63.-b)
... ... ...Growth of low-dimensional structures, see 81.16.-c
68.65.Ac Multilayers
68.65.Cd Superlattices
68.65.Fg Quantum wells
68.65.Hb Quantum dots
68.65.La Quantum wires
68.70.+w Whiskers and dendrites (growth, structure, and nonelectronic properties)
68.90.+g Other topics in structure, and nonelectronic properties of surfaces and interfaces; thin films and low-dimensional structures (restricted to new topics in section 68)

71. Electronic structure of bulk materials (see section 73 for electronic structure of surfaces, interfaces, low-dimensional structures, and nanomaterials; for electronic structure of superconductors, see 74.25.Jb)
71.10.-w Theories and models of many-electron systems
71.10.Ay Fermi-liquid theory and other phenomenological models
71.10.Ca Electron gas, Fermi gas
71.10.Fd Lattice fermion models (Hubbard model, etc.)
71.10.Hf Non-Fermi-liquid ground states, electron phase diagrams and phase transitions in model systems
71.10.Li Excited states and pairing interactions in model systems
71.10.Pm Fermions in reduced dimensions (anyons, composite fermions, Luttinger liquid, etc.) (for anyon mechanism in superconductors, see 74.20.Mn)
71.15.-m Methods of electronic structure calculations (see also 31.15.-p Calculations and mathematical techniques in atomic and molecular physics)
71.15.Ap Basis sets (LCAO, plane-wave, APW, etc.) and related methodology (scattering methods, ASA, linearized methods, etc.)
71.15.Dx Computational methodology (Brillouin zone sampling, iterative diagonalization, pseudopotential construction)
71.15.Mb Density functional theory, local density approximation, gradient and other corrections
71.15.Nc Total energy and cohesive energy calculations
71.15.Pd Molecular dynamics calculations (Car-Parrinello) and other numerical simulations
71.15.Qe Excited states: methodology (see also 71.10.Li Excited states and pairing interactions in model systems)
71.15.Rf Relativistic effects
71.18.+y Fermi surface: calculations and measurements; effective mass, g factor
71.20.-b Electron density of states and band structure of crystalline solids (for electronic structure of superconductors, see 74.25.Jb)
71.20.Be Transition metals and alloys
71.20.Dg Alkali and alkaline earth metals
71.20.Eh Rare earth metals and alloys
71.20.Gj Other metals and alloys
71.20.Lp Intermetallic compounds
71.20.Mq Elemental semiconductors
71.20.Nr Semiconductor compounds
71.20.Ps Other inorganic compounds
71.20.Rv Polymers and organic compounds
71.20.Tx Fullerenes and related materials; intercalation compounds
... ... ...Photonic band-gap materials, see 42.70.Qs
71.22.+i Electronic structure of liquid metals and semiconductors and their alloys
71.23.-k Electronic structure of disordered solids
71.23.An Theories and models; localized states
71.23.Cq Amorphous semiconductors, metallic glasses, glasses
71.23.Ft Quasicrystals
71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron systems; heavy fermions
71.28.+d Narrow-band systems; intermediate-valence solids (for magnetic aspects, see 75.20.Hr and 75.30.Mb in magnetic properties and materials)
71.30.+h Metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions
71.35.-y Excitons and related phenomena
71.35.Aa Frenkel excitons and self-trapped excitons
71.35.Cc Intrinsic properties of excitons; optical absorption spectra
71.35.Ee Electron-hole drops and electron-hole plasma
71.35.Gg Exciton-mediated interactions
71.35.Ji Excitons in magnetic fields; magnetoexcitons
71.35.Lk Collective effects (Bose effects, phase space filling, and excitonic phase transitions)
71.35.Pq Charged excitons (trions)
71.36.+c Polaritons (including photon-phonon and photon-magnon interactions)
71.38.-k Polarons and electron-phonon interactions (see also 63.20.Kr Phonon-electron interactions in lattices)
71.38.Cn Mass renormalization in metals
71.38.Fp Large or Fröhlich polarons
71.38.Ht Self-trapped or small polarons
71.38.Mx Bipolarons
71.45.-d Collective effects
71.45.Gm Exchange, correlation, dielectric and magnetic response functions, plasmons
71.45.Lr Charge-density-wave systems (see also 75.30.Fv Spin-density waves)
71.55.-i Impurity and defect levels
71.55.Ak Metals, semimetals, and alloys
71.55.Cn Elemental semiconductors
71.55.Eq III-V semiconductors
71.55.Gs II-VI semiconductors
71.55.Ht Other nonmetals
71.55.Jv Disordered structures; amorphous and glassy solids
71.60.+z Positron states (for positron annihilation, see 78.70.Bj)
71.70.-d Level splitting and interactions (see also 73.20.-r Surface and interface electron states; 75.30.Et Exchange and superexchange interactions)
71.70.Ch Crystal and ligand fields
71.70.Di Landau levels
71.70.Ej Spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman and Stark splitting, Jahn-Teller effect
71.70.Fk Strain-induced splitting
71.70.Gm Exchange interactions
71.70.Jp Nuclear states and interactions
71.90.+q Other topics in electronic structure (restricted to new topics in section 71)
72. Electronic transport in condensed matter (for electronic transport in surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see section 73; for electrical properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Rs; for transport properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Fy)
72.10.-d Theory of electronic transport; scattering mechanisms
72.10.Bg General formulation of transport theory
72.10.Di Scattering by phonons, magnons, and other nonlocalized excitations (see also 71.45.-d Collective effects in electronic structure of bulk materials)
72.10.Fk Scattering by point defects, dislocations, surfaces, and other imperfections (including Kondo effect)
72.15.-v Electronic conduction in metals and alloys
72.15.Cz Electrical and thermal conduction in amorphous and liquid metals and alloys
72.15.Eb Electrical and thermal conduction in crystalline metals and alloys
72.15.Gd Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (see also 75.47.-m Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport)
72.15.Jf Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.15.Lh Relaxation times and mean free paths
72.15.Nj Collective modes (e.g., in one-dimensional conductors)
72.15.Qm Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect (see also 75.20.Hr Local moments in compounds and alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions in magnetic properties and materials)
72.15.Rn Localization effects (Anderson or weak localization)
72.20.-i Conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and insulators (see also 66.70.+f Nonelectronic thermal conduction in solids)
72.20.Dp General theory, scattering mechanisms
72.20.Ee Mobility edges; hopping transport
72.20.Fr Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
72.20.Ht High-field and nonlinear effects
72.20.Jv Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping
72.20.My Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
72.20.Pa Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.25.-b Spin polarized transport (for ballistic magnetoresistance, see 75.47.Jn; for spin polarized transport devices, see 85.75.-d)
72.25.Ba Spin polarized transport in metals
72.25.Dc Spin polarized transport in semiconductors
72.25.Fe Optical creation of spin polarized carriers
72.25.Hg Electrical injection of spin polarized carriers
72.25.Mk Spin transport through interfaces
72.25.Pn Current-driven spin pumping
72.25.Rb Spin relaxation and scattering
72.30.+q High-frequency effects; plasma effects
72.40.+w Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
72.50.+b Acoustoelectric effects
72.55.+s Magnetoacoustic effects (see also 75.80.+q Magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects, magnetostriction)
72.60.+g Mixed conductivity and conductivity transitions
72.70.+m Noise processes and phenomena
72.80.-r Conductivity of specific materials (for conductivity of metals and alloys, see 72.15.-v)
72.80.Cw Elemental semiconductors
72.80.Ey III-V and II-VI semiconductors
72.80.Ga Transition-metal compounds
72.80.Jc Other crystalline inorganic semiconductors
72.80.Le Polymers; organic compounds (including organic semiconductors)
72.80.Ng Disordered solids
72.80.Ph Liquid semiconductors
72.80.Rj Fullerenes and related materials
72.80.Sk Insulators
72.80.Tm Composite materials
72.90.+y Other topics in electronic transport in condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 72)
73. Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures (for electronic structure and electrical properties of superconducting films and low-dimensional structures, see 74.78.-w; for computational methodology for electronic structure calculations in condensed matter, see 71.15.-m)
73.20.-r Electron states at surfaces and interfaces
73.20.At Surface states, band structure, electron density of states
73.20.Fz Weak or Anderson localization
73.20.Hb Impurity and defect levels; energy states of adsorbed species
73.20.Jc Delocalization processes
73.20.Mf Collective excitations (including excitons, polarons, plasmons and other charge-density excitations) (for collective excitations in quantum Hall effects, see 73.43.Lp)
73.20.Qt Electron solids
73.21.-b Electron states and collective excitations in multilayers, quantum wells, mesoscopic, and nanoscale systems (for electron states in nanoscale materials, see 73.22.-f)
73.21.Ac Multilayers
73.21.Cd Superlattices
73.21.Fg Quantum wells
73.21.Hb Quantum wires
73.21.La Quantum dots
73.22.-f Electronic structure of nanoscale materials: clusters, nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanocrystals
73.22.Dj Single particle states
73.22.Gk Broken symmetry phases
73.22.Lp Collective excitations
73.23.-b Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems
73.23.Ad Ballistic transport (see also 75.47.Jn Ballistic magnetoresistance in magnetic properties and materials)
73.23.Hk Coulomb blockade; single-electron tunneling
73.23.Ra Persistent currents
73.25.+i Surface conductivity and carrier phenomena
73.30.+y Surface double layers, Schottky barriers, and work functions (see also 82.45.Mp Thin layers, films, monolayers, membranes in electrochemistry)
73.40.-c Electronic transport in interface structures
73.40.Cg Contact resistance, contact potential
73.40.Ei Rectification
73.40.Gk Tunneling (for tunneling in quantum Hall effects, see 73.43.Jn)
73.40.Jn Metal-to-metal contacts
73.40.Kp III-V semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Lq Other semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Mr Semiconductor-electrolyte contacts
73.40.Ns Metal-nonmetal contacts
73.40.Qv Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures (including semiconductor-to-insulator)
73.40.Rw Metal-insulator-metal structures
73.40.Sx Metal-semiconductor-metal structures
73.40.Ty Semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structures
73.40.Vz Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures
73.43.-f Quantum Hall effects
73.43.Cd Theory and modeling
73.43.Fj Novel experimental methods; measurements
73.43.Jn Tunneling
73.43.Lp Collective excitations
73.43.Nq Quantum phase transitions
73.43.Qt Magnetoresistance (see also 75.47.-m Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport in magnetic properties and materials)
... ... ...Optical properties, see 78.66.-w
73.50.-h Electronic transport phenomena in thin films (for electronic transport in mesoscopic systems, see 73.23.-b; see also 73.40.-c Electronic transport in interface structures; for electronic transport in nanoscale materials and structures, see 73.63.-b)
73.50.Bk General theory, scattering mechanisms
73.50.Dn Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
73.50.Fq High-field and nonlinear effects
73.50.Gr Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, trapping, mean free paths
73.50.Jt Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (including thermomagnetic effects)
73.50.Lw Thermoelectric effects
73.50.Mx High-frequency effects; plasma effects
73.50.Pz Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
73.50.Rb Acoustoelectric and magnetoacoustic effects
73.50.Td Noise processes and phenomena
73.61.-r Electrical properties of specific thin films (for optical properties of thin films, see 78.20.-e and 78.66.-w; for magnetic properties of thin films, see 75.70.-i)
73.61.At Metal and metallic alloys
73.61.Cw Elemental semiconductors
73.61.Ey III-V semiconductors
73.61.Ga II-VI semiconductors
73.61.Jc Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
73.61.Le Other inorganic semiconductors
73.61.Ng Insulators
73.61.Ph Polymers; organic compounds
73.61.Wp Fullerenes and related materials
73.63.-b Electronic transport in nanoscale materials and structures (see also 73.23.-b Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems)
73.63.Bd Nanocrystalline materials
73.63.Fg Nanotubes
73.63.Hs Quantum wells
73.63.Kv Quantum dots
73.63.Nm Quantum wires
73.63.Rt Nanoscale contacts
73.90.+f Other topics in electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures (Restricted to new topics in section 73)
74. Superconductivity (for superconducting devices, see 85.25.-j)
74.10.+v Occurrence, potential candidates
74.20.-z Theories and models of superconducting state
74.20.De Phenomenological theories (two-fluid, Ginzburg-Landau, etc.)
74.20.Fg BCS theory and its development
74.20.Mn Nonconventional mechanisms (spin fluctuations, polarons and bipolarons, resonating valence bond model, anyon mechanism, marginal Fermi liquid, Luttinger liquid, etc.)
74.20.Rp Pairing symmetries (other than s-wave)
74.25.-q Properties of type I and type II superconductors
74.25.Bt Thermodynamic properties
74.25.Dw Superconductivity phase diagrams
74.25.Fy Transport properties (electric and thermal conductivity, thermoelectric effects, etc.)
74.25.Gz Optical properties
74.25.Ha Magnetic properties
74.25.Jb Electronic structure
74.25.Kc Phonons
74.25.Ld Mechanical and acoustical properties, elasticity, and ultrasonic attenuation
74.25.Nf Response to electromagnetic fields (nuclear magnetic resonance, surface impedance, etc.)
74.25.Op Mixed states, critical fields, and surface sheaths
74.25.Qt Vortex lattices, flux pinning, flux creep
74.25.Sv Critical currents
74.40.+k Fluctuations (noise, chaos, nonequilibrium superconductivity, localization, etc.)
74.45.+c Proximity effects; Andreev effect; SN and SNS junctions
74.50.+r Tunneling phenomena; point contacts, weak links, Josephson effects (for SQUIDs, see 85.25.Dq; for Josephson devices, see 85.25.Cp; for Josephson junction arrays, see 74.81.Fa)
74.62.-c Transition temperature variations
74.62.Bf Effects of material synthesis, crystal structure, and chemical composition
74.62.Dh Effects of crystal defects, doping and substitution
74.62.Fj Pressure effects
74.62.Yb Other effects
74.70.-b Superconducting materials (for cuprates see 74.72.-h)
74.70.Ad Metals; alloys and binary compounds (including A15, MgB2, etc.)
74.70.Dd Ternary, quaternary and multinary compounds (including Chevrel phases, borocarbides, etc.)
74.70.Kn Organic superconductors
74.70.Pq Ruthenates
74.70.Tx Heavy-fermion superconductors
74.70.Wz Fullerenes and related materials
74.72.-h Cuprate superconductors (high-Tc and insulating parent compounds)
74.72.Bk Y-based cuprates
74.72.Dn La-based cuprates
74.72.Hs Bi-based cuprates
74.72.Jt Other cuprates, including Tl and Hg-based cuprates
74.78.-w Superconducting films and low-dimensional structures
74.78.Bz High-Tc films
74.78.Db Low-Tc films
74.78.Fk Multilayers, superlattices, heterostructures
74.78.Na Mesoscopic and nanoscale systems
74.81.-g Inhomogeneous superconductors and superconducting systems
74.81.Bd Granular, melt-textured, amorphous and composite superconductors
74.81.Fa Josephson junction arrays and wire networks
74.90.+n Other topics in superconductivity (restricted to new topics in section 74)
75. Magnetic properties and materials (for magnetic properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Rs; for magnetic properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Ha; for magnetic properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Pn)
75.10.-b General theory and models of magnetic ordering (see also 05.50.+q Lattice theory and statistics)
75.10.Dg Crystal-field theory and spin Hamiltonians
75.10.Hk Classical spin models
75.10.Jm Quantized spin models
75.10.Lp Band and itinerant models
75.10.Nr Spin-glass and other random models
75.10.Pq Spin chain models
75.20.-g Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and superparamagnetism
75.20.Ck Nonmetals
75.20.En Metals and alloys
75.20.Hr Local moment in compounds and alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions (see also 72.15.Qm Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect in electronic conduction of metals and alloys)
75.25.+z Spin arrangements in magnetically ordered materials (including neutron and spin-polarized electron studies, synchrotron-source x-ray scattering, etc.) (for devices exploiting spin polarized transport, see 85.75.-d)
75.30.-m Intrinsic properties of magnetically ordered materials (for critical point effects, see 75.40.-s)
75.30.Cr Saturation moments and magnetic susceptibilities
75.30.Ds Spin waves (for spin-wave resonance, see 76.50.+g)
75.30.Et Exchange and superexchange interactions (see also 71.70.-d Level splitting and interactions)
75.30.Fv Spin-density waves
75.30.Gw Magnetic anisotropy
75.30.Hx Magnetic impurity interactions
75.30.Kz Magnetic phase boundaries (including magnetic transitions, metamagnetism, etc.)
75.30.Mb Valence fluctuation, Kondo lattice, and heavy-fermion phenomena (see also 71.27.-a Strongly correlated electron systems, heavy fermions)
75.30.Sg Magnetocaloric effect, magnetic cooling
75.30.Wx Spin crossover
75.40.-s Critical-point effects, specific heats, short-range order (see also 65.40.-b Heat capacities of solids)
75.40.Cx Static properties (order parameter, static susceptibility, heat capacities, critical exponents, etc.)
75.40.Gb Dynamic properties (dynamic susceptibility, spin waves, spin diffusion, dynamic scaling, etc.)
75.40.Mg Numerical simulation studies
75.45.+j Macroscopic quantum phenomena in magnetic systems
75.47.-m Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport (for spintronics, see 85.75.-d; see also 72.15.Gd, 73.50.Jt, 73.43.Qt, and 72.25.-b in transport phenomena)
75.47.De Giant magnetoresistance
75.47.Gk Colossal magnetoresistance
75.47.Jn Ballistic magnetoresistance
75.47.Lx Manganites
75.47.Np Metals and alloys
75.47.Pq Other materials
75.50.-y Studies of specific magnetic materials
75.50.Bb Fe and its alloys
75.50.Cc Other ferromagnetic metals and alloys
75.50.Dd Nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials
75.50.Ee Antiferromagnetics
75.50.Gg Ferrimagnetics
75.50.Kj Amorphous and quasicrystalline magnetic materials
75.50.Lk Spin glasses and other random magnets
75.50.Mm Magnetic liquids
75.50.Pp Magnetic semiconductors
75.50.Ss Magnetic recording materials (see also 85.70.-w Magnetic devices)
75.50.Tt Fine-particle systems; nanocrystalline materials
75.50.Vv High coercivity materials
75.50.Ww Permanent magnets
75.50.Xx Molecular magnets
75.60.-d Domain effects, magnetization curves, and hysteresis
75.60.Ch Domain walls and domain structure (for magnetic bubbles, see 75.70.Kw)
75.60.Ej Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related effects
75.60.Jk Magnetization reversal mechanisms
75.60.Lr Magnetic aftereffects
75.60.Nt Magnetic annealing and temperature-hysteresis effects
75.70.-i Magnetic properties of thin films, surfaces, and interfaces (for magnetic properties of nanostructures, see 75.75.+a)
75.70.Ak Magnetic properties of monolayers and thin films
75.70.Cn Magnetic properties of interfaces (multilayers, superlattices, heterostructures)
75.70.Kw Domain structure (including magnetic bubbles)
75.70.Rf Surface magnetism
75.75.+a Magnetic properties of nanostructures
75.80.+q Magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects, magnetostriction
... ... ...Galvanomagnetic effects, see 72.15.Gd and 72.20.My
... ... ...Magnetooptical effects, see 78.20.Ls
75.90.+w Other topics in magnetic properties and materials (restricted to new topics in section 75)
76. Magnetic resonances and relaxations in condensed matter, Mössbauer effect
76.20.+q General theory of resonances and relaxations
76.30.-v Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation (see also 33.35.+r Electron resonance and relaxation in atomic and molecular physics)
76.30.Da Ions and impurities: general
76.30.Fc Iron group (3d) ions and impurities (Ti-Cu)
76.30.He Platinum and palladium group (4d and 5d) ions and impurities (Zr-Ag and Hf-Au)
76.30.Kg Rare-earth ions and impurities
76.30.Lh Other ions and impurities
76.30.Mi Color centers and other defects
76.30.Pk Conduction electrons
76.30.Rn Free radicals
76.40.+b Diamagnetic and cyclotron resonances
76.50.+g Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic resonances; spin-wave resonance (see also 75.30.Ds Spin waves)
76.60.-k Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation (see also 33.25.+k Nuclear resonance and relaxation in atomic and molecular physics and 82.56.-b Nuclear magnetic resonance in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
76.60.Cq Chemical and Knight shifts
76.60.Es Relaxation effects
76.60.Gv Quadrupole resonance
76.60.Jx Effects of internal magnetic fields
76.60.Lz Spin echoes
76.60.Pc NMR imaging (for medical NMR imaging, see 87.61.-c)
76.70.-r Magnetic double resonances and cross effects (see also 33.40.+f Multiple resonances in atomic and molecular physics)
76.70.Dx Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electron double resonance (ELDOR)
76.70.Fz Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR), dynamical nuclear polarization
76.70.Hb Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR)
76.75.+i Muon spin rotation and relaxation
76.80.+y Mössbauer effect; other gamma-ray spectroscopy (see also 33.45.+x Mössbauer spectra-in atomic and molecular physics)
... ... ...Magnetic resonance spectrometers, 07.57.Pt
76.90.+d Other topics in magnetic resonances and relaxations (restricted to new topics in section 76)
77. Dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties (for conductivity phenomena, see 72.20.-i and 72.80.-r; for dielectric properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Tv)
77.22.-d Dielectric properties of solids and liquids
77.22.Ch Permittivity (dielectric function)
77.22.Ej Polarization and depolarization
77.22.Gm Dielectric loss and relaxation
77.22.Jp Dielectric breakdown and space-charge effects
77.55.+f Dielectric thin films
77.65.-j Piezoelectricity and electromechanical effects
77.65.Bn Piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants
77.65.Dq Acoustoelectric effects and surface acoustic waves (SAW) in piezoelectrics (see also 43.35.Pt Surface waves in solids and liquids-in acoustics appendix; for surface acoustic wave transducers, see 43.38.Rh-in acoustics appendix)
77.65.Fs Electromechanical resonance; quartz resonators
77.65.Ly Strain-induced piezoelectric fields
77.70.+a Pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects
77.80.-e Ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity
77.80.Bh Phase transitions and Curie point
77.80.Dj Domain structure; hysteresis
77.80.Fm Switching phenomena
77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and antiferroelectric materials (for nonlinear optical materials, see 42.70.Mp; for dielectric materials in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Un)
77.84.Bw Elements, oxides, nitrides, borides, carbides, chalcogenides, etc.
77.84.Dy Niobates, titanates, tantalates, PZT ceramics, etc.
77.84.Fa KDP- and TGS-type crystals
77.84.Jd Polymers; organic compounds
77.84.Lf Composite materials
77.84.Nh Liquids, emulsions, and suspensions; liquid crystals (for structure of liquid crystals, see 61.30.-v)
77.90.+k Other topics in dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties (restricted to new topics in section 77)
78. Optical properties, condensed-matter spectroscopy and other interactions of radiation and particles with condensed matter
78.20.-e Optical properties of bulk materials and thin films (for optical properties related to materials treatment, see 81.40.Tv; for optical materials, see 42.70-a; for optical properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Gs; for optical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Mk)
78.20.Bh Theory, models, and numerical simulation
78.20.Ci Optical constants (including refractive index, complex dielectric constant, absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients, emissivity)
78.20.Ek Optical activity
78.20.Fm Birefringence
78.20.Hp Piezo-, elasto-, and acoustooptical effects; photoacoustic effects
78.20.Jq Electrooptical effects
78.20.Ls Magnetooptical effects
78.20.Nv Thermooptical and photothermal effects
... ... ...Nonlinear optical properties, see 42.65.-k
78.30.-j Infrared and Raman spectra (for vibrational states in crystals and disordered systems, see 63.20.-e and 63.50.+x respectively)
78.30.Am Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.30.Cp Liquids
78.30.Er Solid metals and alloys
78.30.Fs III-V and II-VI semiconductors
78.30.Hv Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.30.Jw Organic compounds, polymers
78.30.Ly Disordered solids
78.30.Na Fullerenes and related materials
78.35.+c Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering (for Raman scattering, see 78.30.-j)
78.40.-q Absorption and reflection spectra: visible and ultraviolet (for infrared spectra, see 78.30.-j)
78.40.Dw Liquids
78.40.Fy Semiconductors
78.40.Ha Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.40.Kc Metals, semimetals, and alloys
78.40.Me Organic compounds and polymers
78.40.Pg Disordered solids
78.40.Ri Fullerenes and related materials
78.45.+h Stimulated emission (see also 42.55.-f Lasers)
78.47.+p Time-resolved optical spectroscopies and other ultrafast optical measurements in condensed matter (see also 42.65.Re-in nonlinear optics; 82.53.-k Femtochemistry in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
... ... ...Impurity and defect absorption in solids, see 78.30.-j and 78.40.-q
78.55.-m Photoluminescence, properties and materials
78.55.Ap Elemental semiconductors
78.55.Bq Liquids
78.55.Cr III-V semiconductors
78.55.Et II-VI semiconductors
78.55.Fv Solid alkali halides
78.55.Hx Other solid inorganic materials
78.55.Kz Solid organic materials
78.55.Mb Porous materials
78.55.Qr Amorphous materials; glasses and other disordered solids
78.60.-b Other luminescence and radiative recombination
78.60.Fi Electroluminescence
78.60.Hk Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence
78.60.Kn Thermoluminescence
78.60.Mq Sonoluminescence, triboluminescence
78.60.Ps Chemiluminescence (see also 42.55.Ks Chemical lasers)
78.66.-w Optical properties of specific thin films (for optical properties of low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale materials, see 78.67.-n; for optical properties of surfaces, see 78.68.+m)
78.66.Bz Metals and metallic alloys
78.66.Db Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.66.Fd III-V semiconductors
78.66.Hf II-VI semiconductors
78.66.Jg Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
78.66.Li Other semiconductors
78.66.Nk Insulators
78.66.Qn Polymers; organic compounds
78.66.Sq Composite materials
78.66.Tr Fullerenes and related materials
78.66.Vs Fine-particle systems
78.67.-n Optical properties of low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale materials and structures
78.67.Bf Nanocrystals and nanoparticles
78.67.Ch Nanotubes
78.67.De Quantum wells
78.67.Hc Quantum dots
78.67.Lt Quantum wires
78.67.Pt Multilayers; superlattices
78.68.+m Optical properties of surfaces
78.70.-g Interactions of particles and radiation with matter
78.70.Bj Positron annihilation (for positron states, see 71.60.+z in electronic structure of bulk materials; for positronium chemistry, see 82.30.Gg in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
78.70.Ck X-ray scattering
78.70.Dm X-ray absorption spectra
78.70.En X-ray emission spectra and fluorescence
78.70.Gq Microwave and radio-frequency interactions
78.70.Nx Neutron inelastic scattering
78.90.+t Other topics in optical properties, condensed matter spectroscopy and other interactions of particles and radiation with condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 78)
79. Electron and ion emission by liquids and solids; impact phenomena
79.20.-m Impact phenomena (including electron spectra and sputtering)
79.20.Ap Theory of impact phenomena; numerical simulation
79.20.Ds Laser-beam impact phenomena
79.20.Fv Electron impact: Auger emission
79.20.Hx Electron impact: secondary emission
79.20.Kz Other electron-impact emission phenomena
79.20.La Photon- and electron-stimulated desorption
79.20.Mb Positron emission
79.20.Rf Atomic, molecular, and ion beam impact and interactions with surfaces
... ... ...Electron and ion channeling, see 61.85.+p
79.20.Uv Electron energy loss spectroscopy (see also 82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy in physical chemistry and chemical physics; 34.80.-i Electron scattering in atomic and molecular physics)
79.40.+z Thermionic emission
79.60.-i Photoemission and photoelectron spectra
79.60.Bm Clean metal, semiconductor, and insulator surfaces
79.60.Dp Adsorbed layers and thin films
79.60.Fr Polymers; organic compounds
79.60.Ht Disordered structures
79.60.Jv Interfaces; heterostructures; nanostructures
79.70.+q Field emission, ionization, evaporation, and desorption
79.75.+g Exoelectron emission
79.90.+b Other topics in electron and ion emission by liquids and solids and impact phenomena (restricted to new topics in section 79)